last November, three Months before Russian forces invaded Ukraine, Russia fired a Nudol missile interceptor that blew up a defunct Soviet satellite, Cosmos 1408, throwing at least 1,400 pieces of debris into low Earth orbit in the process. The weapons test invisibly demonstrated Russia’s anti-satellite military capabilities, rivaling those of China and the United States.

Meanwhile, Russia has reportedly been jamming GPS satellites and interfering with radio communications to and from spacecraft, disrupting navigational tools that the U.S. military and other nations rely on. Such electronic weapons, which can be effectively deployed on satellites and satellite-related infrastructure on the ground, are proliferating around the world, according to analysts at the Center for Strategic and International Studies and the Secure World Foundation.

Last week, think tanks each released a new annual report assessing what has changed — and what hasn’t — over the past year in relation to the anti-satellite and other “counterspace” weapons being developed by a growing number of countries . The counterspace world now extends far beyond the three major military space players — the United States, China, and Russia — and other emerging space powers such as India, Iran, and Japan. Researchers now believe Australia, South Korea and the UK should also be considered emerging space powers.

“All of these countries are laying the groundwork for more indigenous military space capabilities. They’re investing in military space organizations, they’re building resources for electronic warfare capabilities, and they’re building a policy framework for some kind of military space aspirations,” Colorado State said. said Victoria Samson, director of the Washington office of Rumfield-based Safe World Foundation, or SWF.

Both reports have drawn attention to Russia’s anti-satellite test, which, like previous tests by Russia and other countries, has produced long-lived debris. A cloud of shrapnel from an exploding satellite even briefly threatened the International Space Station, causing the crew to hide in the SpaceX Crew Dragon docked there in case of a collision. Other space junk still in orbit in early tests has been around for decades, according to SWF, meaning the risk of collisions with active satellites persists.

“That [Russian] The tests have really inspired the international space community to continue pushing for a ban on tests that produce this debris,” said Caitlin Johnson, a researcher at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) and the report’s author.

Samson agreed. Even anti-satellite tests at lower altitudes, like those in the US and India, still throw hundreds or even thousands of space junk into higher orbits, where they stay longer, and could endanger the spacecraft. “There is no such thing as responsible anti-satellite testing,” she said.

In both reports, analysts wrote that they also saw countries increase their investment in and use of electronic and cyber weapons. These techniques include jamming uplinks and downlinks, spoofing satellites with false signals, intercepting data, and possibly even the ability to hack a satellite and take control of it.