elder Land Rover Defender It is one of the vehicles that I occasionally see on the road but have never touched. Over time, the value has soared to the stratosphere, and most have become favorite lane decorations.There is a 1990s on two streets of my neighbor Guard 90 2 doors like this, he is also the first one in my district to buy a new one 2020 Land Rover Defender 110 Four doors.

Stopping next to each other, when I study them repeatedly during my regular evening walks, the difference is obvious. The stylist of the new Defender 110 did a lot of work to capture the essence of the old icon, but it is undeniable that in contrast, his restored Defender 90 is a barbaric.The biggest difference so far is the suspension, which is in the old truck Composed of sturdy front and rear axles and coil springs-much like one Jeep Wrangler Or similar old-fashioned 80 series Toyota Land Cruiser.

On the other hand, the new Defender is mounted on a one-piece chassis supported by four-wheel independent suspension and air springs. This makes it a better vehicle for everyday drivers, but it also sacrifices some hard-core off-road capabilities. What did they do? I recently got a 2020 Land Rover Defender 100 SE to get to know it.

Of course, before I actually started, I drove it up my RTI slope. The score I measured was 486 points. Land Rover No joints are specified based on RTI scores, but they do say that the largest joint is 19.7 inches. I think this means that the wheels are lifted on a ramp like this, which is what I measured. Calculating their numbers using my formula, which takes into account the actual wheelbase of the Defender 110 of 119 inches, I get 484 points.

So my measurement is basically accurate, but I must point out my own 4Runner In this test, 555 points can be managed.

At the front, the Defender 110 rides on what looks like a double-wishbone front suspension, with a very high upper control arm (yellow arrow) and an air spring (green).It is conceptually similar to the latest iteration Range Rover And discover. But is the lower arm (red) really a wishbone?

no. This is a dual pivot arrangement with two discreet links (green), each link has its own external ball joint. This is not surprising, because it is consistent with what we found on Range Rover and Discovery. At a higher position, the air spring completely wraps the electronically adjustable damper (yellow), which is bolted to an aluminum front fork (red) that is separated around the drive shaft and then bolted to the lower part On the horizontal connecting rod.

Here it is easier to see the two lower connecting rods and their respective outer ball joints (yellow).This arrangement moves the steering axis to the virtual pivot outside the two physical pivots, to a point closer to the inner edge brake The rotor is more physically possible.

The transverse link transfers the turning load to the chassis through a relatively small and rigid inner pivot bushing (green). At the same time, the angled front link is more concerned with supporting the wheels in the front and rear directions. Its inner pivot (red) uses a larger capacity bushing and softer rubber, designed to eliminate the rough edges of the rear parts when encountering potholes or off-road rocks.

The two links are very close one on top of the other, which shows that the engineer did not try to move the virtual pivot point a long distance. More importantly, the fact that these connecting rods are installed from above creates more open space below them to obtain greater local ground clearance.

This is a close observation of the spring/shock absorbing mounting fork and how it is mounted to a point on the lower arm that is about 75% away from the inner pivot. This creates a 0.75 to 1 movement ratio for the air spring and adjustable dampers relative to the vertical tire movement.

I really appreciate the clear and identifiable padded jack apex (green), which allows you to easily determine where to safely lift the truck and makes the jack bracket mounting point easy to access.

Have to admire the packing density of this suspension. Here we can see how the stabilizer bar (yellow) winds up around the drive shaft and then descends to a low point that allows the connecting link (green) to be installed on the shock-absorbing mounting fork. This means that the stabilizer bar has the same 0.75:1 motion ratio as the spring and shock absorber, because all three are ultimately connected to the lower link at the same point.

The upper control arm (yellow) is another aluminum part. Its extremely high mounting point forms a long lever arm that reduces the stress on the upper pivot point and the upper ball joint.

This high-mounted upper wishbone position (shown here as close to full compression when the tire is reopened) allows the pivot point to be farther than otherwise. The disadvantage is that larger tires are not easy to install. If you use spacers or different wheel offsets to gain clearance, you will end up messing up all the work done by suspension design engineers to place the steering shaft exactly where they want Location. This is a problem with most off-road modules, but you have fewer options here.

The upper end of the coaxial air spring and damper are mounted on the familiar-looking shock tower under the hood. There is also a pressure bar (yellow) connecting the two suspension towers and the firewall.Closer, you will see an air line (green) supply Airbag, And a control line (red) down the center of the damper shaft to adjust the adaptive damping.

There is more happening here than you think. First of all, this is a 4-piston fixed caliper (yellow) made of aluminum. The rotor is a two-piece design with a toothed hub (green) that allows the rotor to float laterally to eliminate vibration. The calipers are installed at the rear because the steering (red) works in front of the axle shaft-this configuration is common when the front engine is longitudinally set.

But I know what you are thinking. What is the lump bolted to the steering arm? It seems too light as a mass damper. It is also suspiciously aligned with a protruding ridge, which is cast into the caliper itself.

After reopening the wheel, you can see its barrel very close to the rim. This tells me that this is a mud scraper that prevents debris from being caught between the caliper on the other side and the rim.The ridge on the caliper casting looks like Insurance.

Back to the back, we saw something very familiar again. Range Rovers and Defenders have such an arrangement, it is even similar to the back end Jaguar My pace. From here we can see an air spring (yellow), a shock absorber (green) and an aluminum upper link (red).

This view shows almost the same partial close-up. The air spring seems to be held in place by a simple clip, and the air supply line (yellow) twists and turns at the top. The upper link alone is quite long, bending upwards under the one-piece body.

Here, we can see a huge lower wishbone (yellow) with two internal pivot points and a connection to a joint. There is also a link in front of it, and it seems to have an eccentric cam (green) on the inner end, but it is difficult to figure out what is going on.

Here we can see how the front link (yellow) is connected to the front of the joint and how its eccentric cam must make it a toe link. The lower wishbone (green) connects to the back of the knuckle, so the two together are all that is needed to keep the base of the knuckle correctly positioned.

That’s great, but is there any way to prevent the top of the knuckles from shaking? After all, we only saw one link.

This short black link (yellow) is called a complete link, and it does the job. It also named this type of suspension: integral link suspension. Although there is a single upper link, braking and acceleration torque will not cause the upper end of the steering knuckle to twist, because the integral link prevents it.

But the overall connecting rod must respond to torque. This is the lower wishbone we saw earlier. But it is not the A-shaped wishbone we usually see. It is an H-shaped wishbone with the fourth arm (green) twisted to this high position.

From a packaging point of view, this is all very genius, but when I think of long-distance off-road suspension, this is not what I think of. However, it does provide good ride comfort and predictable handling.

At the same time, the very long shock absorber (yellow) runs down between the legs of H, and is directly fixed to the steering knuckle with a 1 to 1 movement ratio-of course, its tilt angle is smaller.

The rear shock absorber (yellow) has a backpack-mounted remote fuel tank. This action increases the oil volume to help the shock absorber cool down on the dirt road of the washboard. We can also see the rear stabilizer link, but it is installed on the extra H-arm leg (green) that connects the overall link instead of the knuckle.

Here we can see that the movement ratio of the rear air spring is about 0.5 to 1, because it is installed approximately midway between the inner pivot and the outer pivot. The stabilizer bar link peeking under the edge (green) seems to be installed about the same distance away, so I will give it the same score.

The stabilizer bar itself is installed above the lower H arm, and its pivot bushing is protected by a heat shield (yellow) because they are close to the muffler. At the same time, this is also a good view of the single-piston sliding rear brake caliper (red) and the electronic parking brake actuator bolted to the back of it.

You can see from the witness marks how the spring bellows rolls on the so-called piston (yellow) when the suspension is compressed. Interestingly, the characteristics of the air spring-linear velocity, progressive velocity, etc.-can be adjusted by the contour shape of the piston. It is difficult to determine how this is configured because we did not see the spring at the normal loaded height, but the change in diameter near the bottom will make it harder when compressed.

The top of the piston may contain an internal crash stop, which works inside the air rod, or the rear suspension crash stop may be located on top of the shock absorber. Either way, we can’t see it, and I can’t confirm with Land Rover engineers which is correct.

Like the front, the ventilated rear brake disc adopts a two-piece design, consisting of a toothed wheel hub and a floating rotor.

My Defender is equipped with 255/60R20 tires-32 inches high, the old model-8.5 x 20 inch rims. The installed component weighs 76 pounds. If your goal is to reduce weight, then large wheels and short sidewalls are not a good combination, but I think the situation may be worse. It is undeniable that the aluminum content in the suspension is abundant, which can control the total unsprung mass.

Overall, if you have been following the latest developments in Range Rover and Discovery, then the foundation of the new Land Rover Defender 110 is not surprising. In this home environment, Defender 110 is just right. It is completely different from the old-fashioned Defender, but is anyone really looking forward to it?

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