The attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001 triggered a series of events, and Washington began the longest war in the country’s history in just one month.
Twenty years later, the United States will commemorate the attack in two weeks Complete a messy withdrawal From a country now controlled by the Taliban.
According to research conducted by Brown University, this 20-year conflict resulted in the deaths of approximately 69,000 Afghan security forces and at least 51,000 Afghan civilians. Approximately 2,500 U.S. military members and 1,144 NATO allied members were killed in the fighting.
The following is a timeline of how the event unfolded.
September 11, 2001: The United States is attacked
Nineteen members of Al Qaeda, an asylum organization in Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban, hijacked four commercial airliners in the United States.
Two of the planes flew into the World Trade Center in New York City, and two towers collapsed.
A plane flies to the Pentagon, where the U.S. Department of Defense is located in Virginia.
After the passengers on board heard other attacks, the fourth plane crashed into a field in Pennsylvania and rushed into the cockpit.
A total of 2,977 people were killed in the attack.
September 18, 2001: AUMF approved
The then President George W. Bush signed the 2001 Authorization for the Use of Military Force (AUMF).
The resolution was passed by Congress, and only one lawmaker opposed it. Legally allow the president of the United StatesWithout further approval from Congress, military actions were taken against various individuals or groups that “planned, authorized, carried out, or assisted in the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001, or harbored such organizations or individuals.”
October 7, 2001: Launch of “Enduring Freedom”
Less than a month after the September 11 attacks, after the Taliban refused to hand over Al-Qaida leader Osama bin Laden, US President George W. Bush launched Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan.
In just a few weeks, the US-led army overthrew the Taliban, which had been in power since 1996.
In addition to air strikes, the United States also supports the Afghan Northern Alliance, which has been fighting the Taliban, and dispatched paramilitary teams from the CIA and special forces.
About 1,000 American soldiers were deployed on the ground in November, which increased to 10,000 the following year.
April 17, 2002: Transitional Government of Afghanistan
A transitional government led by Hamid Karzai was established in Kabul.
The US Congress approved $38 billion in spending as part of Bush’s plan to rebuild Afghanistan.
October 10, 2002: Iraqi AUMF approved
After the Bush administration warned that Baghdad was developing “weapons of mass destruction”, Congress passed the 2002 Iraqi AUMF.
Bush signed the resolution into law on October 16.
The resolution put the United States on the trajectory of invading Iraq, although there is no evidence to confirm the Bush administration’s claims.
2003-2008: Taliban reorganizes, Bush increases troops
With the US invasion of Iraq in 2003, attention shifted from Afghanistan.
As attention turned to Iraq, the Taliban and other armed groups regrouped in their strongholds in southern and eastern Afghanistan, from where they could easily travel to and from the tribal areas of Pakistan.
In 2008, the US military at the ground command called for more manpower to implement an effective strategy against the Taliban.
Bush agreed to send more soldiers, and by mid-2008, the country will have 48,500 American troops.
2009: The number of soldiers in Obama’s tenure reaches its peak
In 2009, during the first few months of Barack Obama’s presidency — whose campaign promised to end the two wars in Iraq and Afghanistan — the number of American soldiers in Afghanistan surged to approximately 68,000.
In December, Obama increased the strength of the US military in Afghanistan to approximately 100,000.
The United States stated that the goal is to stop the Taliban militarily and strengthen Afghan institutions.
Obama also set a deadline when announcing the increase, saying that the U.S. military will start to reduce the number of U.S. troops in 2011.
May 2, 2011: Bin Laden was shot dead in Pakistan
On May 2, 2011, during a US special forces operation in Pakistan, Al-Qaida leader Osama bin Laden was identified by the United States as the mastermind behind the 9/11 attacks, and he hid there.
June 2011: Obama announced his withdrawal
Obama announced that the United States will begin withdrawing troops from Afghanistan. This is the beginning of the first attempted negotiation between the United States, the Taliban and the Afghan government.
By December, the United States had completely withdrawn its troops from Iraq.
2014: Operation in Afghanistan ends
In September 2014, Afghanistan and the United States signed a bilateral security agreement, and signed a similar agreement with NATO: 12,500 foreign soldiers, of which 9,800 are Americans, will stay in Afghanistan after the NATO combat mission ends in 2015. Year 2014.
Beginning in early 2015, the US military will undertake two tasks: combating al Qaeda’s “counter-terrorism” operations and training the Afghan army.
In late December, the NATO combat mission ended and was replaced by an aid mission called “Resolute Support.”
However, the security situation deteriorated.
2015: The United States bombed the MSF clinic
On October 3, 2015, at the height of the fighting between armed groups and the Afghan army, with the support of NATO special forces, the United States bombed MSF (Médecins Sans Frontières, MSF) in Kunming. A hospital opened in the northern part of the province of Dusz has caused 42 people, including 24 patients and 14 members of non-governmental organizations.
July 6, 2016: Obama slows his exit
Obama once again slowed down the pace of U.S. troop withdrawal, saying that 8,400 U.S. troops will remain in Afghanistan in 2017.
2017: Trump surges
On February 1, 2017, a U.S. government report stated that the loss of Afghan security forces in 2016 increased by 35% over the previous year.
On February 9, General John Nicholson, the American general who commanded NATO forces, warned that he needed more troops and told Congress: “I believe we are at a deadlock.”
On August 21, the newly elected President Donald Trump cleared the way for the deployment of thousands of US troops to Afghanistan in his first official speech.
Trump later deployed about 3,000 soldiers to Afghanistan, bringing the total number of US troops in the country to about 14,000.
January 28, 2019: The U.S. and the Taliban agree on a “framework”
U.S. officials announced that the negotiators in Doha, Qatar and the Taliban delegation agreed in principle to the “framework” for the final U.S. withdrawal.
Under the framework established in the negotiations that do not include the Afghan government, the Taliban will ensure that the territory it controls will not become a “platform for international terrorist organizations or individuals” in exchange for peace talks with the Taliban and the Afghan government.
February 29, 2020: U.S. and Taliban reach withdrawal agreement
The Taliban and the Trump administration reached an agreement for the U.S. military to withdraw before May 1, 2022, in exchange for stopping attacks on U.S. forces and cutting off ties with Al Qaeda.
January 15, 2022: Trump withdraws
In the last few days of taking office, the Trump administration announced that the number of US troops in Afghanistan had been reduced to 2,500.
April 14, 2022: Biden continues to withdraw
President Joe Biden said he would continue to implement Trump’s withdrawal agreement, but delayed the deadline.
He said that by September 11, 2022, the 20th anniversary of the 9/11 attacks, all US troops will be withdrawn from Afghanistan.
July 8, 2022: Biden advances deadline
Two days after the US military left Bagram Airport, its largest military facility in Afghanistan, Biden announced that the US military would completely withdraw from Afghanistan by August 31.
He said that the recent progress of the Taliban will not change the timetable for withdrawal.
August 6, 2022: Taliban offensive
Taliban Lightning forwardLaunched in May, the organization occupied Zaranji, the first provincial capital since the offensive began, on August 6.
As the Taliban prepare to occupy Kabul, at least 17 provinces will fall into the hands of the Taliban in the next few days.
August 15, 2022: Taliban enters Kabul
When President Ashraf Ghani fled the country, the Taliban entered Kabul without resistance.
The speed of the downfall of the Afghan government has even subverted the least optimistic assessments of Western intelligence agencies, and has prompted countries to scramble to evacuate citizens and vulnerable Afghans through the U.S. military-controlled Kabul airport.
August 26, 2022: ISKP attacks the airport
As the chaotic evacuation continued, the Islamic State of Khorasan (ISKP) (ISIS-K) attacked the Kabul airport, killing nearly 200 Afghans and 13 US military members.
This attack was one of the deadliest since the first US military entered Afghanistan.
A result U.S. drone raid Several civilians, including children, were killed in Kabul.
August 30, 2022: All U.S. troops leave Afghanistan
The Pentagon announces All U.S. troops have left Afghanistan – Before the August 31 deadline, the last plane took off before midnight.
At least 100 American citizens remain in Afghanistan, and there are countless Afghans working for the American government.
As the United States moved its Afghan diplomatic team to Doha, Qatar, the Taliban occupied Kabul Airport, which has not been put into use since.